"The Lotka–Volterra equation suggests that all things being equal, gangs will divide up space equally (and that may not mean along neat street boundaries). This process occurs when gangs experience more competitive animosity toward outsiders (other gangs) than among themselves. But, importantly, it takes very little competition to create these territories in the first place, or even to maintain them. “Every time there’s a gang-on-gang shooting, everybody talks about how there’s an ‘all-out gang war,’” Brantingham. “But no, the numbers don’t seem to suggest that."